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Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Grassberger MBA 

DI W. Grassberger 

Consultant for Electrical Engineering 

Certified Machine Safety Expert – CMSE®

UL Manufacturer Technical Representative – MTR

Safety Consultant 

Wolfgang Grassberger, Dipl.-Ing., MBA.

CE-Marking of Industrial Machines

European Machinery Directive was first published in 1989. Its first edition contained only 32 pages. It was meant to tear down trade barrieres within the common European market while providing for adequate safety.

This directive has been revised several times over the past decades. The current edition is from 2006/43/EG, some 14 years ago. It shall be re-issued as a European Regulation in approx. 2024.

Having passed a conformity assessment, a machine is marked with the CE sign. It states conformity with essential safety and health requirements of all applicable European Directives and Regulations (such as e.g. contained in Appendix I of Machinery Directive), on the date of commissioning, i.e. at the date of hand-over from manufacturer to end user.

OEMs may assess and declare conformity of most machines at their own responsibility, without consultation from external (notified) bodies. For dangerous machines listed by Annex IV, such as e.g. wood-working machines with automatic feeding, harmonised standards must fully be observed.

An OEM must compile a complete Technical File, comprising among other documents: Description, assembly drawing, risk assessment, operations manual.

Performing a comprehensive risk assessment is the most strenuous part of this process. It should be carried out well before design. Where inherently safe solutions cannot be obtained, guards must reduce risk of injury to an acceptable level.

An OEM's executive officer may eventuelly assert conformity by signing resp. declaration, pertaining to Machinery Directive and other applicable directives, regulations, and standards.

May I offer my vast experience with conformity assessment: I can diligently assist and propose practical concepts for safe design and guarding.

Conformance Assessment Procedures for Machines

In order to finally affix a type plate bearing the CE-mark on a machine, it must first be assessed in relation to essential safety and health requriements of the European Machinery Directive. Contrary to other equipement such as for medical use, this process is very straightforward for industrial machines. In most cases the OEM may investigate, and declare conformity, under their own responsibility. This is where I contribute my experience in various industries.

There are but a few exceptions, where type approval from a notified body, such as one of the four TÜV organisations, mut be applied for. Annex IV of Machinery Directive lists a couple of special machines, among them circular saws, woodworking planers, portable chain saws, presses, lifts for vehicles or for persons, removable mechanical transmisions. However even these more hazardous machines may be declared in conformance with esssential safety requirements by applying certain harmonized standards.

Conformity assessment procedure according to Annex VIII of Machinery Directive.
Conformity assessment procedure according to Annex IX of Machinery Directive.
Full quality assurance according to Annex X of Machinery Directive

Machinery Directive regulates as follows:

Annex IV Annex IV of Machinery Directive lists machines with elevated hazards.
Harmonised Standards OEM may declare conformity under their own responsiblity even for Annex IV listed machines, provided all essential safety requirements have been met through Harmonised Standards (see article 12, paragraphs 3 and 4).
Full Quality Assessment OEM implements and maintains a full quality assessment program as required by Annex X, comprising design, manufacture, and validation. This program is audited in regular intervals by a notified body (e.g. TÜV).
EC Type Approval A notified body inspects a specimen and its technical file against essential safety requriements (see Annex IX).
Technical File OEM compiles a Technical File for conformity assessment. This file contains among other, drawings, circuit diagrams, P&IDs, descriptions, risk assessment (see Annex VII part A).
Internal Checks OEM inspects each machine assembled for accordance with its Technical File, and validates its safety (see Annex VIII paragraph 3).
Declaration of Conformity OEM issues and signs an EC Declaration of Conformity according to Annex II A.
CE-Mark CE-mark is typically placed on machine's type plate.

Ziviltechniker in Austria

Ziviltechniker have been entitled by the Austrian-Hungarian empire in 1913 to assist public administration in surveying. In Austria they are regarded as persons of public reliance and have the right to establish deeds with evidential value (§292 Zivilprozessordnung – ZPO).

Both Engineering Consultants and architects are Ziviltechniker.

Prerequisites are a relevant academic study, practical experience, an exam and an oath. The exam covers the resp. area of expertise, public administration, business administration, and code of professional conduct.

In general, engineering consultants handle planing, assessing, supervision, and fiduciary taks. Moreover they conduct measurements, draft expertises, and represent their clients before authorities.

Logo der Kammer für Ziviltechniker

As a Zivil­techniker I have to abide by strict confidentiality and code of conduct.

As a consultant for electrical engineering I offer my expert knowledge and practical experience in the area of machine and plant design, precisely on all their safety aspects. I am not entitled to commercial execution and therefore free from conflict of interest.

On the one hand, European law on safety of machinery aims to enable free trade within the Union, by defining a maximum safety standard. On the other hand, such regulation provides for a minimum standard on occupational safety. Persuant to these overall aims, first agreed upon in the Contract of Rome, both original equipment manufactuers/importers of machinery, and employers have the following obligations:

OEMs and Importers

Each machine designed, or imported into the European Community, must comply with essential safety and health requirements put forth in Annex I of Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, as well as with those of all other applicable directives and regulation. Drawing on my qualification and experience in machine design I offer my assistance in obtaining cost-effective and practical implementation of these safety standards.

Employers (End-Users of Machinery)

As an employer you are obliged to provide for safe work places. Based on my experience in the area of machine safety, I offer first-time and recurring safety validation of all manufacturing equipment. I am able to represent your best interests in sourcing, commissioning, and acceptance testing of new machines, vis-a-vis your suppliers and OEMs.

Implementation of European Directives for OEMs in Austria

Directives are indirect European legal instruments, subject to national adoption by member states. Provided a machine complies with these national regulations, it may freely be put on the entire European market.

Even when you design and construct a machine for exclusive use in your own factories, it must still comply with essential safety requirements for OEMs, as documented in a Technical File and asserted by your resp. EC Declaration of Conformity.

As an exception to other directives, Annex I to MD puts forth many obligatory details, albeit in language far from everyday use. Nevertheless I recommend these few pages to each designer as an introduction to the subject. The same may be said for ATEX and Pressure Equipment Directives.

Unfortunately all other directives listed below contain nothing but a few general safety targets, from which no hint whatsoever can be obtained towards practical implementation. Resp. standards must be consulted for guidance.

Machinery Directive – MD

Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (recast)

MSV 2010

Ver­ordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wirt­schaft und Arbeit über die Sicher­heit von Maschinen und von Sicherheits­bau­teilen für Maschinen (Maschinen-Sicher­heits­verordnung 2010 – MSV 2010)

Low Voltage Directive

Directive 2014/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits

NSpGV

Verordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wissen­schaft, Forschung und Wirt­schaft über elektrische Betriebs­mittel zur Verwendung inner­halb bestimmter Spannungs­grenzen (Nieder­spannungs­geräte­ver­ordnung 2015 – NspGV 2015)

EMC Directive

Directive 2014/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (recast)

EMVV 2015

Ver­ordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wissen­schaft , Forschung und Wirt­schaft über elektro­magnetsiche Ver­träglich­keit (Elektro­magnetische Ver­träglich­keitsv­erordnung 2015 – EMVV 2015)

Radio Equipment Directive – RED

irective 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC

FMaG 2016

Bundes­gesetz über die Markt­über­wachung von Funk­anlagen (Funk­anlagen-Markt­über­wachungs-Gesetz – FMaG 2016)

ATEX Directive

Directive 2014/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (recast)

ExSV 2015

Ver­ordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wissen­schaft, Forschung und Wirt­schaft über Geräte und Schutz­systeme zur bestimmungs­gemäßen Ver­wendung in explosions­gefährdeten Bereichen (Explosions­schutzver­ordnung 2015 – ExSV 2015)

Pressure Euipment Directive – PED

Directive 2014/68/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of pressure equipment

DGVO

Verord­nung des Bundes­ministers für Wissen­schaft, Forschung und Wirt­schaft über Druck­geräte (Druck­geräte­verordnung - DGVO)

Implementation of European Law for Employers in Austria

European Counsil has implemented a framework directive on occupational safety, persuant to article 137 on social welfare in Contract of Rome.

Its minimum safety requirements have been implemented in Austria by the ArbeitnehmerInnenschutzgesetz.

Framework Directive on Occupational Safety

Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work

ASchG

Bundesgesetz über Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (ArbeitnehmerInnenschutzgesetz - ASchG)

Under the umbrella of the framework directive, some 20 single directives have been issued on occupational safety. A few are named below.

These European Directives have mostly been implemented as national regulations in Austria.

First Individual Directive

Council Directive 89/654/EEC of 30 November 1989 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the workplace (first individual directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

AStV

Verordnung der Bundes­ministerin für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales, mit der Anforderungen an Arbeits­stätten und an Gebäuden auf Bau­stellen fest­gelegt und die Bauarbeiter­schutz­verordnung geändert wird (Arbeits­stätten­verordnung – AStV)

Second Individual Directive

Directive 2009/104/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work (second individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

AM-VO

Verordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wirt­schaft und Arbeit über den Schutz der Arbeit­nehmer­Innen bei der Benutzung von Arbeits­mitteln (Arbeits­mittel­verordnung - AM-VO) und mit der die Bauarbeiter­schutz­verordnung geändert wird

Fouth Individual Directive

Council Directive 90/269/EEC of 29 May 1990 on the minimum health and safety requirements for the manual handling of loads where there is a risk particularly of back injury to workers (fourth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

§64 ASchG

§64 des Bundes­gesetzes über die Sicher­heit und Gesund­heits­schutz bei der Arbeit (Arbeitnehmer­Innenschutz­gesetz - ASchG)

Ninth Individual Directive

Council Directive 92/58/EEC of 24 June 1992 on the minimum requirements for the provision of safety and/or health signs at work (ninth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

KennV
Anhang I

Verordnung der Bundes­ministerin für Arbeit, Gesund­heit und Soziales über die Sicher­heits- und Gesund­heits­schutz­kenn­zeichnung (Kenn­zeichnungs­verordnung - KennV)

ATEX-Use-Directive

Directive 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres (15th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

VExAT

Verordnung des Bundes­ministers für Wirtschaft und Arbeit über den Schutz der Arbeit­nehmer/innen vor explosions­fähigen Atmosphären und mit der die Bau­arbeiter­schutz­ver­ordnung und die Arbeits­mittel-Ver­ordnung geändert werden (Ver­ordnung explosions­fähige Atmosphären – VEXAT)

16th Individual Directive

Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration) (sixteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) - Joint Statement by the European Parliament and the Council

17th Individual Directive

Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 February 2003 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise) (Seventeenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

VOLV

Verordnung über den Schutz der Arbeit­nehmer/innen vor der Gefährdung durch Lärm und Vibra­tionen (Ver­ordnung Lärm und Vibra­tionen – VOLV)

19th Individual Directive

Directive 2006/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from physical agents (artificial optical radiation) (19th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

VOPST

Ver­ordnung über den Schutz der Arbeit­nehmer/innen vor der Ein­wirkung durch optische Strahlung (Ver­ordnung optische Strahlung – VOPST)

20th Individual Directive

Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) (20th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) and repealing Directive 2004/40/EC

VEMF

Ver­ordnung des Bunde­sministers für Arbeit, Soziales und Konsumenten­schutz über den Schutz der Arbeit­nehmer/innen vor der Ein­wirkung durch elektro­magnetische Felder (Ver­ordnung elektro­magnetische Felder – VEMF)

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